Large Bathers

大泳客

Paul Cézanne 保罗·塞尚
A work made of color lithograph with hand-coloring on cream wove paper.
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Large Bathers, 1896–c. 1898

属性

在奶油编织纸上用手工着色的彩色平版印刷品。

A work made of color lithograph with hand-coloring on cream wove paper.

来自

法国

France

时间

1896–c. 1898

材质

奶油编织纸手工着色光刻

Color lithograph with hand-coloring on cream wove paper

尺寸

415 × 510 mm (image); 464 × 603 mm (sheet)

来源

威廉·艾森德拉斯夫妇的赠送

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. William N. Eisendrath

随着19世纪工业化的到来,对自然也产生了相应的呼唤。为了缓和社会日益机械化的状况,社会评论员鼓励人们多在户外活动,最好是在乡下。这个画廊里的照片描绘了为娱乐、锻炼和一般的友谊而洗澡的情景。Munch和Cézanne展示了裸体男人和其他男人在外面嬉戏,因为同性裸泳被社会接受,在一些领域公开鼓励。这些艺术家将他们的沐浴者英雄化,使他们成为力量、男子气概和道德的化身。曼奇尤其被吸引到这个话题上,部分原因是他自身的健康状况不佳,同时也受到越来越多的自由身体文化运动(Freikórperkultur,Freikórperkultur)的影响,这场运动提倡裸体主义、定期洗澡和沐浴太阳,以此作为身体和精神复兴之路的一部分。另一方面,社会习俗禁止妇女裸泳;因此,雷诺阿的《泼水洗澡者》是艺术家想象力的产物,是精心安排的工作室建筑。裸体女沐浴者的象征意义不同于男性;这些女性体现了脆弱、挑衅和性感。除了户外娱乐外,随着人们越来越多地宣传游泳对身体的好处,巴黎及其周边地区的室内游泳池也被不断增长的中产阶级家庭淹没。水上运动是为了运动、卫生和娱乐。奥诺丽·维多利亚·道米尔住在巴黎最受欢迎的女子游泳学校附近。作为他第一手观察的结果,他制作了残酷讽刺的石版画,揭开了男女沐浴者理想的面纱。他的游泳者穿着现代游泳装,没有表现出曼奇、塞尚或雷诺阿所描绘的游泳者令人钦佩的身体特征。

With the advent of industrialization in the 19th century, a corresponding call to nature also emerged. In an effort to temper society’s growing mechanization, social commentators encouraged people to spend more time outdoors, preferably in the country. The pictures in this gallery depict bathing for recreation, exercise, and general camaraderie. Munch and Cézanne show nude men frolicking outside with other men, as same-sex nude swimming by men was socially accepted and in some spheres openly encouraged. These artists heroicize their bathers, making them the embodiment of strength, virility, and morality. Munch in particular was drawn to the subject, partially as a result of his own poor health and due to the influence of the growing Freikörperkultur (Free Body Culture) movement, which advocated nudism, regular bathing, and soaking up the sun as a part of a path to physical and spiritual renewal. On the other hand, social mores forbade women from bathing nude; Renoir’s Splashing Bather, therefore, was a product of the artist’s imagination, a carefully arranged studio construction. The symbolism of nude female bathers differed from that of men; these women embody vulnerability, provocation, and sensuality. In addition to outdoor recreation, indoor pools in and around Paris were inundated with families from the growing bourgeoisie as the physical benefits of swimming were increasingly advertised. Aquatics were championed for sport, hygiene, and pleasure. Honoré Victorin Daumier lived close by one of the most popular swimming schools for women in Paris. As a result of his first-hand observations, he produced brutally satiric lithographs that removed the veil of the ideal for both male and female bathers. His bathers are clothed in contemporary swim attire and show none of the admirable physical characteristics of bathers depicted by Munch, Cézanne, or Renoir.